Substitution (stage 2) strategies focus on the replacement of one practice, characteristic or process by another, or the development of a parallel practice or process in opposition to one identified as inadequate.  At the substitution phase are new organizational arrangements, the substitution of processes and practices, and consistent with Geels (2011), alternative / niche activity introduced of the dominant flow of change. What  instruments might move firms from efficiency measures to this stage? At this stage, advocates must be careful not to install infrastructure that will not be used at the redesign stage.

Click on the Goal below if you'd like to see the Substitution stage strategies associated with it.

Goal 1 Enough

Economic development strategies (including First Nations)

Income support and security architecture, policies and programmes (including First Nations)

Housing (including First Nations)

Self-provisioning (public and private spaces and supports for non-commercial food production, hunting and fishing, access to traditional foods for First Nations)

Breastfeeding promotion

Equitable access to the food distribution system, retail and alternative food projects

Goal 2 Supply

Demand-supply planning and coordination (fisheries and food)

Goal 3 Service

Food as health promotion and primary care

Integrating food into educational processes

Integrating food into public institutions and spaces, including schools

Reducing corporate concentration and broadening ownership of food system resources (including land)

Public control of food resources

Goal 4 Safe

Food safety regimes to support local and sustainable production across multiple scales

Food system, processing and farm designs to optimize food quality and eliminate contaminants

Pesticide, fertilizer, veterinary product and genetic engineering approvals

Goal 5 Resources

Sustainable fisheries management

Aboriginal food production

Sustainable food and aquaculture production, processing and consumption

Agricultural land protection

Energy efficiency

Protecting genetic resources

Food waste reduction

Sustainable transportation

Municipal organic waste and sewage sludge management

Goal 6 Income

Farm market net income (including operating cost minimization)

Improve Business Risk Management (BRM) programmes

Support for small and medium enterprise (SME) processing in rural communities

Goal 7 Participation

Food citizenship

Structures and processes for regulatory pluralism and changes to the loci of decision making

Goal 8 Work

Intergenerational farm transfer

New farmer programmes and rural development

Labour force development

Goal 9 Culture

Work – life balance

Food and culture

Food and body image

Food and community building

Goal 10 International

Trade agreement modification and abrogation

Food aid and development assistance

International conventions and treaties