Dramatic reductions in animal rearing and consumption
Shifting production to better respect animal welfare means lower levels of production, from both lower yields per animal unit, and reduced stocking rates. All this also has cost and price implications though only a limited amount of modelling work has been undertaken (cf. Kollenda et al., 2020 on the transition to cage - free farming in the EU). The progress of animal welfare transition is thus intimately linked to sustainability requirements and Demand-supply Co-ordination (see Goal 2, Demand-supply Coordination, Redesign).