At this stage in transition, the conservation of AnGR is being fully integrated with sustainable production systems. The range of breeds on farms, and the diversity expressed within those breeds, have dramatically increased, in part because the farm needs in each region, reflecting the ecological and farm diversity of that area, require different breeds and expressions of different characteristics. The transition to a sustainable diet is well underway, so animal populations are dropping with less pressure for high performance and the nutritional quality of animal products is increasing.
Multi-story permanent agriculture with animals
Animals play a fundamentally important role on many farms, contributing extensively to nutrient, energy and moisture flows. In perennial agriculture, the farm is designed primarily around perennial plants, trees, shrubs, vines and grass. Animals can run in the alleyways between these plants, including cows, pigs, turkeys, sheep, goats or chickens (cf. Shepard, 2013). Commonly, heritage breeds are better adapted to such environments (see also Goal 5, Sustainable Food, Redesign).
Payments for agrobiodiversity services
Tied to valuation of ecological services, the ability to value breeds beyond their commodifiable outputs. A growing body of economic literature identifies the public goods values of animal genetic diversity (FAO, 2015). Payments for environmental services then can be used to support the conservation and use of threatened breeds. Driving to drive forward widespread diversity in farm animal populations. The specific concept in this case is payments for agrobiodiversity services (PACS) (Narloch et al., 2011), At the substitution stage, paying farmers to keep animals, at the redesign stage, part of a broader effort to acknowledge the full suite of services farmers provide beyond food production. Paying farmers for ecological services could be like a basic income approach for those who aren't eligible for basic income (see Goal 5, Sustainable Food, Redesign, Payments for Environmental Services).