"The reduction of multiple values and dimensions to that of market price .... profit maximization [being] the only driving ethos that justifies the market-driven allocation of such an essential for human survival" (Vivero-Pol, 2017:3).
Value chain approach
The J.W. McConnell Foundation defines a sustainable value chain as a “series of relationships between producers, processers, distributors [and] retailers… that are needed to get healthy, sustainably produced food to regional markets [at]… scale. Such value chains ensure that producers receive fair compensation, that the food is produced, processed and transported sustainably, and that the final product is affordable and widely accessible” (J.W. McConnell Family Foundation, 2017). The role of existing chain actors, power dynamics within chains, and the policy environment are all part of the assessment (USAID, 2018). This type of analysis can improve the efficiency of regional food distribution networks and its value to chain actors. The idea is that properly functioning value chains attract new food-related businesses to the region or persuade them not to leave (Cuddeford, 2012).
Full cost accounting
The skills ecosystem approach parallels the political ecology approach.
In the skills ecosystem model, skills shortages are seen to be as much about work organisation and turnover as about problems with the supply of skilled people from education and training institutions. Rather than responding automatically to labour shortages by creating new training courses, policy makers first assess the causes of those shortages. The question is always asked ‐ is there a skills shortage because of a lack of training, or is it rather that local jobs are unattractive and therefore cannot retain staff? (Froy & Giguere, 2010, p. 31-32).